Raman processes and effective gauge potentials

A technique is described by which light-induced gauge potentials allow systems of ultracold neutral atoms to behave like charged particles in a magnetic field. Here, atoms move in a uniform laser field with a spatially varying Zeeman shift and experience an effective magnetic field. This technique is applicable for atoms with two or more internal ground states. Finally, an explicit model of the system using a single-mode two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation yields the expected vortex lattice.